Scientific writing has two goals: to tell your reader of new developments in a specific field, and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Scientific writing has two goals: to tell your reader of new developments in a specific field, and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Academic writing research paper sample

  • Academic writing when you look at the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most regularly in the form of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as for instance astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly proceed with the IMRAD model, which stands for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such as the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and an overview regarding the subsequent material.
  • The methods section should cover the writer’s assumptions, system model, simulation model, and gratification measures. For an study that is original when, where, and how the research was conducted, what materials were utilized, and who had been included in the study groups should all be included.
  • The writer should include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the answer to the research question, and state whether the research hypothesis was proven or not proven in describing the results.
  • The discussion section should analyze the outcomes, state why they matter, contextualize them pertaining to research that is existing and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: the capability to perceive a topic without being impacted by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: a opinion that is definite position on a subject.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation of this materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to resolve questions and identify patterns. Writing in these disciplines often takes the form of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    As an example, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research leads to address or clarify a certain scientific development or question:

    “This study is designed to identify degrees of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a three-mile stretch for the Columbia River, that will be a location notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples bought out a two-year period from various locations within the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high quantities of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. When you look at the scholarly study, we examine the partnership between salmon population as well as the persistence of those compounds.”

    Scientific papers require a lot of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing may be difficult, but academic conventions provide a template that is common communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing in the sciences seeks to describe complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. In addition it includes elements of classical argument, since scientific papers are anticipated to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the information in front of you.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, along with other types of scientific writing must be precise in order to provide results which can be reproduced and tested.

    Make an effort to use words that are simple sentences. Some students try to make their work sound more intellectual by making use of obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. In fact, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions which can be still understandable to a lay audience. Don’t make an effort to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted academic writing. Instead, write as simply and clearly that you can. Precision is a component that is key of.

    When you look at the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using language that is clear describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is important. Don’t generalize—provide exact times, measurements, quantities, and other relevant data whenever feasible. Using precise, straightforward language to describe your work can be vital. It is not the right time or location for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, continues to be important: writing about the sciences does give you a n’t pass to publish sloppily.



    The sciences strive for objectivity at each stage, through the procedures that are experimental the language found in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering a significant, innovative contribution; because of this, it has an character that is argumentative. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis needs to be testable, as well as your results must be reproducible.

    The importance of objectivity within the sciences limits writers’ ability to use rhetoric that is persuasive. However, it’s still essential to make a strong case for the importance, relevance, and applicability of your research. Argumentative writing does have a place in scientific papers, but its role is limited. You may use persuasive language in the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but avoid using it whenever you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students find it difficult to transition in one topic to another. Transitions are well worth mastering—they would be the glue that holds your opinions together. Never assume that the reader will correctly guess the relationships between different subtopics; it is your responsibility to spell out these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Maintaining your chosen model at heart as you write often helps make sure your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, be cautious about logic traps such as bias and faulty causality. Researchers must account fully for their biases that are own or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These can sometimes include bias that is cognitive thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to incorporate some members of the intended sample more readily than the others).

    The body of a scientific paper generally comes with the following sections: introduction (which could include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each element of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model is the conventional approach that is structural academic writing when you look at the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This might be included within the introduction, or it might stand as the own section.
    • The strategy section should explain the way you collected and evaluated your data.
    • In the event your project conducts an experiment or an data that is original, you ought to include a separate section that reports your results.
    • The discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any findings that are new.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a paper that is scientific.
    • literature review: A synthesis for the critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which include significant findings in addition to theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that depend on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or absence of discovery) that comes from the method that is scientific of.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that creates a far more subjective understanding by studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    Into the natural and social sciences, the format when it comes to body of the paper varies with regards to the discipline, audience, and research methods. Generally, the body regarding the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This process is known as IMRAD for short.

    These sections are usually separate, although sometimes the total email address details are combined with the methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, since they are still learning the conventions of writing within their discipline. Most journals that are scientific the IMRAD format, or variations of it, and even suggest that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    Attempt to stay true to each section’s stated purpose. You can easily cite relevant sources in the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the discussion that is lengthy of sources for the introduction or literature review. The outcome section should describe your results without discussing their significance, as the discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any new findings. Think of each section as a course served at a dinner—don’t that is fancy the soup into the salad or add leftover scraps from the entree towards the dessert!

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